Bad Stuff in Bread
At Stone House Bread we don’t use any additives in our bread.
Additives are used in commercial breads for various reasons. Antioxidants prevent spoiling and extend shelf life; dough conditioners achieve the desired texture; sweeteners are used for flavor enhancement and to retain moisture. These additives usually have scary chemical names, and some may indeed be quite
harmful to human health. Some additives are worse than others, and the hardest-to-pronounce ingredient is not always the most harmful.
Potassium bromate is an oxidizing agent used to “mature” bread flour, which helps strengthen the dough and improve rising, giving it more volume. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) — part of the World Health Organization — whose mission is to prevent cancer through researching the potential for human exposure to carcinogens, considers potassium bromate dangerous. The IARC reports that no data are available to assess the potential carcinogenicity of the compound in humans. However, food-additive-grade potassium bromate causes kidney and thyroid tumors when fed to rats. Although potassium bromate is on California’s Proposition 65 list of chemicals known to the state to cause cancer, the FDA approves the additive for use. Bromate has essentially been banned worldwide except in the United States and Japan. Because of its utility in bread making, you can even buy “bromated flour” (made with potassium bromate) in the grocery store. The compound may be listed either way on an ingredient label. Avoid breads containing this additive.
Azodicarbonamide is an additive is used as a dough conditioner to improve the texture and strength of bread dough. The compound, abbreviated as ADA, received tremendous media attention when the sandwich chain Subway announced it would remove ADA from its bread dough due to its potentially harmful health effects. Concerns center on semicarbazide (SEM), a chemical that forms when ADA is broken down during bread making. According to the FDA, “At high levels, SEM has been shown to increase the incidence of tumors when fed to female mice, but not to male mice or either gender of rat.” The government agency goes on to say that the levels of SEM fed to these rodents “far exceed estimates of human exposure from the consumption of ADA-treated flour or bread products.” Accordingly, azodicarbonamide is still approved for use as a food additive despite the fact that it “is not necessary to make bread and there are alternative ingredients approved for use available.
Partially Hydrogenated Oil – The FDA has required food manufacturers to list amounts of trans fat on food labels since 2006. These dangerous fats are formed during “partial hydrogenation,” the processing of unsaturated fats used in bread and other food products to make them more resistant to oxidation and spoilage. However, if a food contains less than 0.5 grams of trans fat per serving, the nutrition label may legally say “0 grams,” and people could unknowingly be ingesting a couple of grams of trans fats from packaged foods throughout the day. To ensure that a product has no trans fat, look at the ingredient label. “Partially hydrogenated oil” is a dead giveaway that the product contains trans fat. Eating trans fat increases the “bad” type of cholesterol (small, dense LDL particles) that is damaging to arteries and increases systemic inflammation, which is linked to heart disease, diabetes and stroke. A Harvard School of Public Health analysis found that “eliminating trans fats from the U.S. food supply could prevent up to one in five heart attacks and related deaths.” Because of this, many health experts advise eating no trans fat at all.
Monoglycerides and diglycerides act as emulsifiers in bread, pulling together the water- and oil-based ingredients that have trouble combining on their own. This makes bread softer, improves the texture of the dough and prevents staling. Despite their scary-sounding names, mono- and diglycerides are safe to eat and are the most frequently used emulsifiers in the food industry. Although they are not harmful to human health, they are a sign of industrial food production.
Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) is an antioxidant used as a preservative to prevent rancidity, which is the chemical deterioration of fats that occurs with exposure to oxygen. Most breads contain small amounts of fat that can turn rancid over time. Rancidity produces an unpleasant odor and flavor, and food manufacturers keen to avoid this change in their products may add commercial antioxidants. Unfortunately, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2011 Report on Carcinogens, BHA is “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.” The compound is also listed on California’s list of chemicals known to the state to cause cancer. Nevertheless, BHA is still approved for use as a food additive by the FDA. Many consumers and advocacy groups are frustrated by this approval, given the wide availability of safe alternatives that serve the same purpose as BHA. Many of these — including vitamins E and C — are even necessary for human health. Data on the potential carcinogenicity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a related compound, is inconclusive.
Caramel Coloring – Although most people may be familiar with “caramel coloring” from the list of ingredients on a can of soda, the additive is also commonly used to darken the color of breads or baked goods — especially dark wheat or rye breads. Health concerns related to consumption of caramel coloring are due to certain contaminants, namely 2- and 4-methylimidazole (2- or 4-MEI), that may be produced as a result of processing. The U.S. National Toxicology Program found that these chemicals cause cancer in mice, and the World Health Organization considers them “possibly carcinogenic to humans.” Because of this California’s Environmental Protection Agency added 4-MEI to its Proposition 65 list of chemicals known to the state to cause cancer and mandated that foods and beverages containing the chemical (above a specified threshold) carry a warning label. Although the FDA “has no reason to believe that there is any immediate or short-term danger presented by 4-MEI at the levels expected in food from the use of caramel coloring,” it is best to avoid the ingredient.
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) on a bread label is a bad sign. The sweetener — often made from genetically modified corn — is preferred by food manufacturers because it is cheaper than sucrose (table sugar), which is made from sugar cane or sugar beets. In addition to adding sweetness, HFCS has other desirable properties that make it an attractive ingredient for bread makers. Compared to sucrose, HFCS produces better browning during baking, and it keeps bread moist for a longer period of time. Because HFCS is so ubiquitous, it makes a major contribution to the 360 calories of added sugars that Americans consume each day. If you’re eating toast with breakfast and a sandwich for lunch, you may unknowingly be filling your diet with empty calories from HFCS. Unfortunately, excess calorie consumption is not the only concern. Studies show that excess fructose can lead to higher triglycerides, a risk factor for heart disease, and decreased insulin sensitivity, a precursor to diabetes.
Soy shows up often in bread as either soybean oil or soy lecithin. On the surface, neither ingredient is cause for concern. Lecithin is found in many plant and animal foods and is a dietary source of the nutrient choline. It acts as an emulsifier, keeping water and oil from separating and preventing rancidity. Soybean oil provides fat for added flavor, richness and texture, and unless it’s partially hydrogenated (which leads to unhealthy trans fats), the fat is safe to consume in appropriate amounts. The concern with soy-based ingredients is that they are likely to come from genetically modified soy. In 2013, 93 percent of the soybeans planted in the United States were of a genetically engineered variety. The scientific community hotly debates the perceived harm of genetically modified ingredients, but many consumers are sufficiently concerned to want to avoid GMO foods.